the zoanthid

Go down

the zoanthid

Post  phantom on Fri Mar 18, 2011 1:41 am

Zoanthids (zoa's) are an order of cnidarians commonly found in coral reefs, the deep sea and many other marine environments around the world. These animals come in a variety of different colonizing formations and in numerous colors. They can be found as individual polyps, attached by a fleshy stolon or a mat that can be created from small pieces of sediment, sand and rock. The term "zoanthid" refers to all animals within this order Zoantharia, and should not be confused with "Zoanthus", which is one genus within Zoantharia.
They are among the most commonly collected coral in aquaria, easily propagating and being very durable in many water conditions.Often in zooxanthellate genera such as Zoanthus and Palythoa there are a large number of different morphs of the same or similar species. Such zooxanthellate genera derive a large portion of their energy requirements from symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae), similar to many corals, anemones, and some other marine invertebrates.
Some zoanthids contain the highly toxic substance palytoxin. Palytoxin is one of the most toxic organic substances in the world, but there is an ongoing debate over the concentration of this toxin in these corals. However, even in small quantities, the toxin can be fatal should it be ingested or enter the blood stream. If delivered immediately, vasodilators injected into the ventricle of the heart can act as an antidote.In order for this toxin to be dangerous to humans, the average aquarist would need to ingest the zoanthid in sufficient quantities, or brush a recent cut over it. Average handling, propagation and aquarium maintenance is unlikely to pose any danger beyond a localized skin reaction.
Palytoxin is a tumor promoter, and is being studied in relation to signaling pathways in skin cancer genesis. Contrary to common belief, palytoxin can be absorbed through intact skin. The danger of acute poisoning from venomous zoanthids is quite real. An aquarist was poisoned through skin injuries on fingers by a Parazoanthus species, but recovered after 3 days. His zoanthid was found to contain 2-3 milligram of palytoxin per gram.For comparison, the intravenous LD50 dose of palytoxin for a grown man is less than 8 microgram. Thus each gram of the offending zoanthid contained enough venom to kill at least 125 grown men.Zoanthids feed both by photosynthesis, aided by the zooxanthellae they contain, and by capturing plankton and particulate matter. Although photosynthesis aids in their nutrition, even species that do not actively capture plankton cannot live through photosynthesis alone. Zoanthids can eat meaty foods, such as lancefish, brine shrimp, krill and bloodworms.

LIGHTING:

Zoanthids are very adaptable and can do reasonably well in many conditions. However, it is the opinion that Zoanthids do like good lighting. This is evidenced by the "morphing" of polyps that are low in the tanks or in a shaded area. Often they will expand larger, have duller coloration and grow exaggerated stalks from stretching toward the light just like a flower would do. High lighting is the best for most, though I have had success in low to medium lighting as well. I have even noticed that certain species or colors prefer higher or lower light.

water:

Zoanthids do not require the level of, or the amount of, trace elements that SPS corals do but they certainly benefit from consistent water quality/chemistry. Qualities that should be monitored regularly in a reef aquarium are -- Alkalinity, Calcium, Magnesium, Iodine, temperature, Phosphates, Nitrates, and pH. it is also noted that zero nitrate and phos is not a good thing for zoanthids,
infrequent feeding and ultra low nutrient conditions can lead to entire colony meltdowns. The "cheesing out" syndrome can be the result of limited nutrients (Phosphates, Nitrates). Zoanthids need fish poop, dissolved food matter and the resulting nutrients to thrive.

PREDATORS, PESTS, DISEASE:

sundial snail





Zoanthid Eating Nudibranchs



Zoa Spiders



starfish?




zoa pox



and zoa eating amphidods

look like normal pods but you will know if yopu have them
as you will lose about 3-4 zoa's per night.only way to control
them is with fish like wrasses(sixline being best) and cardinals.
phantom
phantom
Zoalogist AKA Zoa Addict
Zoalogist AKA Zoa Addict

Posts : 229
Reputation : 0
Join date : 2010-12-20
Location : northern ireland

Back to top Go down

Re: the zoanthid

Post  reefkeepersni on Fri Mar 18, 2011 8:54 pm

great write up mate.
cheers
reefkeepersni
reefkeepersni
Global Administrator
Global Administrator

Posts : 186
Reputation : 0
Join date : 2010-12-20

Back to top Go down

Re: the zoanthid

Post  phantom on Sat Mar 19, 2011 12:12 am

on the topic...looks like I have a few zoa eating pods again angry032
phantom
phantom
Zoalogist AKA Zoa Addict
Zoalogist AKA Zoa Addict

Posts : 229
Reputation : 0
Join date : 2010-12-20
Location : northern ireland

Back to top Go down

Re: the zoanthid

Post  Sponsored content


Sponsored content


Back to top Go down

Back to top


 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum